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The Civil War The American Civil War (1861–1865), also known as the War between the States and several other names, was a civil war in the United States of America. Generations have been told that slavery was the cause of the Civil War. But in fact, the war was actually caused by economic difference. In other words, slavery was more like a catalyst and the main reasons which led to the Civil War were the differences between their economy system and politic ideas and also the interference of Europe. At that time, the North was an industrialized area but their factories lacked free workers. Meanwhile, the Southern economy was relying on crops and enough slaves guaranteed the prosperity of their plantations and slaves became the major labor force in the South. Slavery was the ideology of the South’s economic system which was probably the most important cause of the war. People have long been used to associate Southern plantations with slavery and many arguments before the war were seemingly about slave fares while it was actually the economic interests which really mattered. The argument on slavery also involved jealousy. Both

sides’ economy rose quickly after the founding of America but because of the difference economic styles, they both wanted to become richer and take domination over the other side. The “ Tariff of 1828” was a good example to show how jealous the Northerners were. By collecting high taxes on imported goods, the clothes Northern factories made could get a better sell, which affect the Southern economy. After Northerners and Southerners began arguing over slavery, Northerners began to help free the slaves. Ran-away slaves caused a huge economic loss to the Southern slave owners. Both sides didn’t want each other to have advantage in economy so they kept bringing loss and assaulting to each other simultaneously. Another cause of the war was that after many years of argument, the North and South both hated each other very much. In the presidential election of 1860, Republicans, led by Abraham Lincoln, opposed the expansion of slavery into US territories. It was considered seriously violated the profit of the Southern who wanted to expand more slaves into their farms. Then Lincoln took the office. It triggered South Carolina’s declaration of secession from the Union

in December, and six more states did so by February 1861. These seven states established a Southern government, the Confederate States of America on February 4, 1861. These states didn’t commit the control of the Union. Ft. Sumter was located in the middle of the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, where the U.S. fort's garrison had withdrawn to avoid incidents with local militias in the streets of the city and Lincoln insisted to hold on. Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederate, ordered P. G. T. Beauregard to attack the fort before a relief expedition could arrive. Troops under Beauregard

bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12 – 13, forcing its capitulation, thus the war broke out. The whole war was divided into three parts: Eastern Theater, Western Theater and Trans- Mississippi. In Eastern Theater,the Union Army of the Potomac that aimed to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, were frustrated by the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. Union was defeated. But in the later wars in Eastern Theater, the Confederate was falling in devastating defeats. The war even sprawled to Maryland. McClellan and Lee, the general of Confederate, fought at the Battle

of Antietam near Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, 1862, the bloodiest single day in United States military history. Lee's army, checked at last, returned to Virginia before McClellan could destroy it. Antietam is considered a Union victory because it halted Lee's invasion of the North and provided an opportunity for Lincoln to announce his Emancipation Proclamation. Although won the Battle of Antietam, the Union still couldn’t defeat the Confederate Army. Lincoln changed the generals several times. During Lee's second invasion of the North, Meade defeated Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1 to 3, 1863). This was the bloodiest battle of the war in which has been called the war's turning point. However, the General Lee escaped to the South. While the Confederate forces had huge successes in the Eastern Theater, they were defeated many times in the West. They were driven from Missouri early in the war as a result of the Battle of Pea Ridge. In Leonidas Polk's invasion of Columbus, Kentucky ended Kentucky's policy of neutrality and turned that state against the

Confederacy. Nashville and central Tennessee fell to the Union early in 1862, leading to attrition of local food

supplies and livestock and a breakdown in social organization. The Union put forward the winning steps. They won the Tennessee, aimed to Atlanta - the heart of the Confederate. The Union's key strategist and tactician in the West was Ulysses S. Grant, who won victories at Forts Henry and Donelson (by which the Union seized control of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers). General grant has controlled the Mississippi River basin in 1863, which divided the South into two parts. Compared to the Western Theater, the Trans- Mississippi shamed the Union most. The Union didn’t win a battle there. It was certain that in the whole war, the Union couldn’t control that area. After the General Lee’s surrender, the civil war in the coming months was stopped there. Both sides of the final battle were in the south Texas Palomino Ranch campaign. Ironically, this was called a "great victory" coalition. With General Lee’s strategic and the support of economic, the Union was putting forward winning. On April 14, 1865, President Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth, a Southern sympathizer. Lincoln died early the next

morning, and Andrew Johnson became the president. Meanwhile, Confederate forces across the South

surrendered as news of Lee's surrender reached them. On May 9, 1865, the Confederate President Jefferson Davis presented the Confederate surrendered. On June 23, 1865, Cherokee leader Stand Watie was the last Confederate General to surrender his forces. The war ended with the Union winning. Generally speaking, the American Civil War was the deadliest war in American history, resulting in the deaths of 620,000 soldiers and an undetermined number of civilian casualties. It legally abolished slavery in the United States, restored the Union and strengthened the role of the federal government. The social, political, economic and racial issues of the war decisively shaped the reconstruction era that lasted to 1877, and brought changes that helped make the country a united

superpower.




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